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12th Century AD


King Coloman's Unification of Hungary and Croatia

In the year 1102, King Coloman accomplished a remarkable feat that would have a lasting impact on the history of Hungary and Croatia. He succeeded in unifying the two countries under the Hungarian Crown, which marked a significant turning point in their respective histories. This unification was not only a political achievement but also a cultural one, as it allowed for greater exchange and cooperation between the two nations. As a result, the unified kingdom was able to prosper and develop in ways that would not have been possible otherwise. Moreover, King Coloman's legacy continues to be felt today as both Hungary and Croatia continue to celebrate their shared history and cultural heritage.


Portugal's Independence from the Kingdom of León

In 1128, Portugal achieved its independence from the Kingdom of León, marking a significant moment in the country's history. The independence of Portugal was the result of a long-standing conflict between the two kingdoms that had been ongoing for years. This conflict was largely fueled by political and economic differences, as well as cultural and nationalistic disagreements. After a series of battles and negotiations, Portugal emerged victorious and established itself as a sovereign nation. Following its independence, Portugal experienced a period of growth and expansion, with significant developments in areas such as trade, exploration, and culture. This newfound independence also allowed Portugal to establish itself as a major player in European politics and diplomacy, shaping the course of history in the region for centuries to come.


The Fall of the Northern Song Dynasty

The Northern Song dynasty, which lasted from 960 to 1127, was one of the most prosperous and culturally rich periods in Chinese history. However, despite its success, the dynasty faced many challenges, including political instability, corruption, and military threats. In 1127, the Northern Song dynasty lost power over northern China to the Jin dynasty, a powerful and aggressive group from the north. This event marked the end of an era and had a significant impact on Chinese history, culture, and society. The fall of the Northern Song dynasty led to the rise of the Southern Song dynasty, which lasted until 1279. During this time, China experienced significant social and cultural changes, including the emergence of new literary genres, artistic styles, and philosophical movements. Despite its many struggles, the Northern Song dynasty left a lasting legacy on Chinese history and culture, and its impact can still be felt today.


The Anarchy in England

The Anarchy, a period of civil war in England, was a time of great turmoil and political upheaval, lasting from 1135 to 1154. During this period, the country was plunged into chaos as rival factions vied for power and control. The civil war began when King Henry I died without a clear heir, leading to a power vacuum that was quickly filled by ambitious barons who sought to seize the throne for themselves. This sparked a series of conflicts that lasted for almost two decades, with battles being fought across the country and countless lives being lost. Despite the violence and bloodshed, however, the Anarchy also saw the emergence of new political and social structures that would shape England's future for centuries to come.


The Renaissance of the 12th Century

During the Renaissance of the 12th century, which was a time of great cultural and economic revival, there were many important advancements in various fields. In art, for example, there were major developments in painting, sculpture, and architecture, as artists sought to create more realistic and visually stunning works. In literature, writers began to explore new themes and styles, with a particular focus on humanism, which emphasized the importance of individual human experience and reason. Additionally, the Renaissance saw significant advances in science, mathematics, and technology, as scholars rediscovered ancient knowledge and made groundbreaking discoveries of their own. All of these accomplishments helped to shape the world we know today and continue to have a profound impact on society and culture.


Lothair of Supplinburg: Holy Roman Emperor

In the year 1125, the Holy Roman Empire was in a state of political upheaval. It was at this moment that Lothair of Supplinburg was elected as the new Holy Roman Emperor, marking a significant turning point in the history of the empire. The election of Lothair was not without controversy, as there were other powerful figures who vied for the position. However, it was ultimately Lothair who emerged victorious, thanks in part to his military experience and political savvy. As Holy Roman Emperor, Lothair faced a number of challenges, including disputes with the papacy and ongoing tensions with neighboring kingdoms. Nevertheless, he was able to consolidate his power and establish himself as a formidable ruler, shaping the course of European history for years to come.


Philip II of France

Philip II, also known as Philip Augustus, was a monarch who reigned over France for 43 years, from 1180 until 1223. During his reign, he initiated several important reforms and made significant territorial gains for the French kingdom, including the reconquest of Normandy from the English. He also played a key role in the Third Crusade and was a patron of the arts, supporting the construction of several notable Gothic cathedrals. Despite facing numerous challenges during his reign, Philip II was widely regarded as a skilled and effective ruler who left a lasting legacy on the French monarchy and the country as a whole.


Philip IV, King of France

Philip IV, also known as Philip the Fair, was the King of France from 1285 to 1314, a period of nearly thirty years. During his reign, he implemented several significant reforms that helped to stabilize the French monarchy and strengthen its power. For example, he reformed the French legal system, creating a more centralized and unified system of justice that helped to establish the authority of the king over his subjects. Additionally, he worked to strengthen the French economy, promoting trade and commerce both within France and with other nations. He also expanded the territories under French control, increasing the size and power of the kingdom. Despite these accomplishments, Philip IV was not without his challenges and controversies; he was often at odds with the papacy and other European powers, and his actions towards the Knights Templar led to their eventual downfall. Nevertheless, his legacy as one of the most important and influential French monarchs of the medieval period is secure.

 

Annotated Bibliography

  1. Spinei, Victor. The Great Migrations in the East and South East of Europe from the Ninth to the Thirteenth Century. Romanian Cultural Institute, 2003.

  2. Hill, David. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press, 1991.

  3. Duby, Georges. The Knight, the Lady, and the Priest: The Making of Modern Marriage in Medieval France. University of Chicago Press, 1998.

  4. Brown, Peter. The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity, A.D. 200-1000. Wiley-Blackwell, 2013.

  5. Abulafia, David. The Mediterranean in History. Thames & Hudson, 2003.

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